Booktube Gangsta Rap by Benjamin Zephaniah

Billenium Questions

  1. Write a detailed synopsis of the story.

The story is set in the distant future as the name Billenium suggests. Nearly twenty million people are squashed into a city putting tremendous pressure on space. The city council has restricted the space that an individual can occupy to mere 38 square feet. John Ward and Henry Rossiter are friends who share living space. They are both employed but find it hard to get by in the crowded city where traffic can last for days with no one being able to move due to congestion. While knocking about their cubicle, Ward discovers a forgotten room close to their cubicle. They are euphoric in this new space, thrilled due to the extense space. They buy a Victorian wardrobe which is the only valuable piece of furniture in the place. Soon, Rossiter has the idea of inviting their girlfriends to share the extra room with them. The girls in turn ask their families to move in and take advantage of the space. Ward who had hated the greedy landlords soon becomes a landlord himself, with making money becoming more significant than enjoying their new room. In order to make more space, Ward and Rossiter break up the beautiful wardrobe, and the increased amount of people living in the space makes it become smaller and smaller.

  1. Discuss the theme of over-population and the effect it has on both the way of life and quality of life of the inhabitants of the city.

Overpopulation changes the way people live. Life is awful and the quality of life is incredibly low. There’s so much oppression people can’t even walk on the sidewalk without getting bruises. Pedestrian jams can last for days without cars moving due to congestion. Even in their houses or cubicles people cannot be freed from this oppression, as the space they have is incredibly reduced(this was a consequence to overpopulation). The quest for living space becomes an ambition and obsession lot the citizens. People lack privacy and even have to share bathrooms and kitchens. Hygiene and privacy were completely lost, which drove people crazy in the search for them.

  1. The quest for living space has become an overriding obsession with the people of the city. Discuss this theme in detail. Include in your answer some discussion of the ways in which Ballard makes the quest for space dominate the characters’ lives.

The quest for living space is absurd and almost impossible to achieve as to have some extra space you need have to a family and at least three kids, which is crazy. By doing this, the people living in this society are contributing to overpopulation instead of finding a way to reduce it. When the character’s find a bigger space, they have the need to occupy that empty space with big furnitures or having more people live with them. When the characters do this, it shows how they aren’t able to have an empty space because their minds are framed in living in a small and cramped space. Becoming used to the idea of oppression, once people are a little bit more free, that aren’t able to take advantage of it and end up wasting the extra space they have(as the main characters of the story).

  1. What sort of relationship does Ballard put forward between the inner world of the individual (as represented by Ward and Rossiter) and the outer world in which they live. In other words, how does Ballard conceptualise the effect of surviving daily life in a hopelessly over-crowded city on the consciousness of the individual as demonstrated by the ways in which Ward and Rossiter manage the gift of space in the secret room they discover?

Ward and Rossiter hate the way that they have to live due to the overpopulation of society. They deeply despise the lack of privacy and space. For example, Ward hates landlords, but he ends up becoming one. They can’t help but follow the flow of things no matter how much they hate it.

  1. In the story, Ballard does attempt some sort of explanation of the social, political and economic causes of the extreme over-population that has beset the world. Explain his views as they are presented in the story.
  1. G. Ballard thinks that the population is selfish, that they think about only about of themselves and their families. We believe this because people instead of wanting and contributing with the reduction of population, they instead do anything to have some more space for living, which only happens if they have at least three kids. So this is ironic, because also the government does not stop overpopulation, as a result of this, the population have more than three kids, and they receive more space, however as they have more kids, the population increase.


  1. Do you agree with his argument? Do you think that current population growth projections indicate that we are likely to end up in the situation portrayed in the story?


Yes we agree, because nowadays the population is always growing, and some countries have many children. As a result, it is very possible that we could end up like the characters in the story, with overpopulation, because of the increase of children that is happening nowadays.


  1. Describe and analyse Ward’s character in some detail. What values does he hold? Why does Ballard make use of this type of character as the main character for this story?


Ward is one of the protagonists of Billenium, maybe he is the main character. He works as a librarian and he shares the small room with  his friend Henry Rossiter. He was very affected when the wardrobe was destroyed to have more space. He does not like, or he hate the landlords that reduces the size of the cubicles to have money.


  1. What role does Rossiter play in the story?


Henry Rossiter is Ward’s friend. He is the one that made the terrible mistake of convincing Ward on inviting people to live with them in the double cubicle, that was big and could be felt by more people.


  1. Describe the role of the female characters in the story.
  2. Discuss the effects that over-population and its attendant ills has had on the nature of family life in relation to Ward’s family as well as Judith and Helen’s family relationships.
  3. What does the secret room symbolise in the story?
  4. Why do you think Ward and Rossiter are unable to keep the gift of space to themselves? Is Ballard making a comment on how our inner world ultimately reflects the shape of the external world in which we live?
  5. What sort of living arrangement do they eventually end up allowing (and accommodating to) in their secret room?
  6. Discuss Ballard’s style and language in the story? Consider also in what ways it is appropriate to the nature of the story being told.




5- J. G. Ballard thinks that the population is selfish, that they think about only about of themselves and their families. We believe this because people instead of wanting and contributing with the reduction of population, they instead do anything to have some more space for living, which only happens if they have at least three kids. So this is ironic, because also the government does not stop overpopulation, as a result of this, the population have more than three kids, and they receive more space, however as they have more kids, the population increase.


9- The role of the female characters in the story were of friends that they took advantage of the space that their friends gave to them


10- What the effect of overpopulation has had on the nature of family is that the overpopulation was caused by how families wanted to have some more space that they decide to have kids which contribute with this.


11- The secret room next to Ward and Rossiter’s cubicle symbolized freedom, it was a leak or a crack that let them escape from living in a limited space.


12- Ward and Rossiter are unable to keep the gift of space to themselves because they were used to live in a small place called “cubicles” and when they found a big place, they started putting big furniture and then inviting people to live with them so they started reducing the space that they had. For me Ballard making a comment on how difficult is to change and adapt to places for all the humans and in this case, the protagonist didn’t take advantage of all the space that they had.


13- At the end of the story, there were seven people living in the secret room, and they divided that room in seven parts so all the people have their own “room”. At the end, they end up living in a smaller place than the cubicles.


14- Ballard uses different techniques of speech to emphasize his point of overpopulation. He uses hyperbaton and oxymoron to make the reader understand how he feels towards the society in his time and he wants to prove a point. The story also names the word “cubicle”, by doing this it emphasizes that we as a society are destined to live in a place meant to be in an office.

Task 2

The video shows how small and uncomfortable the cubicles are. Both, the story and the video explain that living in cubicles is the result of having overpopulation. This must be very hard to live in since they have so little space in their cubicles.

The Berlin Blockade


what was life like in Berlin in the post-war era?

Life in Berlin was harsh after WW2 because this was a terrible city, affected by war. population was massively decrease, and the ones that still alive were in a very bad conditions. moreover the berlin blockade affected the type of living, this was because berlin couldn’t be supplied by US, GB and France.

How did Soviet policy towards Berlin differ from that of the West?

the soviet policy, was that stalin wanted germany to be crippled. so he didn’t wanted germany to be recovered completely.however in the west side the idea was completely different, as they wanted germany to recover as they needed their industries to work to satisfy their needs.

Why was reform of the German currency a key issue for both sides?

The Western Allies introduced a new currency into their new unified territory. staling thought the this was an attempt of attacking to the east economy. This finally lead into the Berlin Blockade, and that lead to the start of the Cold War.

Why was the airlift such a major feat?

the airfit was the last cause of the beginning of the Cold War. This event showed the rivalry between the two great powers and how this increasing tension was irreversible.

In what respect can the USSR and US be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift?

The US and the USSR were responsible of increasing tension during the airlift, as they were very suspicious between their actions, although they said they were not willing to go to war. Stalin wanted to cripple Germany as they feared they could recover and to create a new conflict. on the other hand the western nations wanted Germany  recover to at least to able to satisfy the population needs. the USSR created the Berlin blockade to try the western countries to give up the capital, but they didn’t, and the cold War started

Why did Stalin eventually agree to talks over the airlift?  

Stalin was obligated to let the western countries to enter the east, and remove the blockade as it was clear that this had not made the western countries give up Berlin. in the contrary the number of supplies increases between those times.

Extension question; Who was more to blame for Berlin becoming a major flashpoint in the Cold War, the Soviets or the Americans?

In my opinion they were both to blame. although the USSR was responsible for the last cause before the Cold War started, and USA also caused tension. USA created the atomic bomb without even consulting the soviets and also this increased the tension between them. in conclusion both of the two countries have the same guilt of starting the cold war, as they have different ideas and economies. this clearly lead to a conflict as they could not decide together, and as a consequence this leads to the beginning of the Cold War

Video de la visita a la casa rosada.

Este es el video que realizamos en la casa rosada, yo lo realiza con Bianca Ieraci, Gonzalo Irazusta y Oliverio Llobet.

Booktube looking for alaska by Francisco Montoya

in my booktube, i decided to choose the task were i have to talk about the characters and the relationship between them, this is what i have done:

El principe de la niebla- trailer

En la clase de lengua, la profesora Carol Silva nos pidio que realizamos un trailer de un libro que leímos en clase. yo lo hice con Ramiro Aizpiri, Valentina re y juana zufreategui

tp formacion etica y ciudadana- con ramiro aizpiri

Ramiro Aizpiri y Francisco Montoya

a) Los conceptos de gobierno y Estado son sinónimos.
Falso, porque el Estado es una organización jurídica y política que ejerce poder sobre un territorio En cambio, el concepto de gobierno son las instituciones encargadas de tomar decisiones fundamentos
b) El territorio de un Estado es considerado un espacio tridimensional.
Verdadero, porque el territorio incluye no solamente el suelo sino que también el subsuelo, los mares y el espacio aéreo.
c) La centralización del poder en la organización del territorio es uno de los rasgos que caracterizó el proceso de conformación de los estados modernos.
Verdadero, porque la razón por la cual el Estado fue tomando el control de todos los aspectos de la vida social de un territorio determinado.
d) El proceso de formación de los Estados modernos de América fue diferente al que tuvo lugar en Europa.
Verdadero, porque en Europa la conformación de Estados modernos era organizarse en reinos, principados, señoríos y ciudades, en las que el rey era el que tenía el poder político. Sin embargo, en los Estados americanos el territorio estaba constituido por colonias la cual su organización política dependía de los imperios Europeos.
e) El Estado de derecho se caracteriza por concentrar todas las decisiones en una persona o grupo de individuos.
Falsa, porque el Estado de derecho aplicó sus ideas de derechos individuales fundamentales, con la importancia de la división del poder público.
f) En los Estados federales coexisten diferentes ámbitos de gobierno.
Verdadero, porque El Estado federal está compuesto por diferentes Estados particulares, con la capacidad para administrar su territorio y dictar las leyes propias.

2. Escriban un texto breve explicando por qué el Estado de derecho es considerado el “imperio de la ley”. Incluyan una reflexión sobre la importancia de este principio fundamental para la vida en un régimen democrático.

El Estado de derecho es considerado el “imperio de la ley” ya que estos que ocupan los cargos estatales no puede tomar decisiones por su propia voluntad, sino que deben guiar por lo que determina la ley. Además, este conjunto de leyes que regula la vida de los ciudadanos deben estar creadas por órganos representativos. En nuestra opinión, este derecho es fundamental ya que es importante que un Estado se diriga por leyes y no por lo que cada uno de los que ocupan cargos lleven a cabo sus ideas por su propia cuenta.

3. Lean las siguientes afirmaciones. Luego, explicarlas con sus palabras en la carpeta.
El Estado detenta el monopolio de la fuerza.
Esta afirmación se refiere a que El Estado tiene la capacidad de ejercer la violencia física a través de la policía, el ejército o gendarmería de forma legítima.
b) La nación es una comunidad imaginada.
Esta afirmación se refiere a que la nación puede ser imaginada ya que es limitada porque tiene otras naciones más allá de sus fronteras. También, soberana porque en la época de Ilustración y Revolución se destruía la legitimidad del reino totalmente ordenado.
c) El régimen político está conformado por los marcos institucionales dentro de los cuales funciona la vida política de una comunidad.
El régimen político, está conformado por los marcos institucionales dentro de las cuales funciona la vida política. las ideas sobre los que se fundamentan la autoridad de los gobernantes y la obediencia de los gobernados es un ejemplo de vida política.


La época en la que predominó
El contexto social y económico en el que surgió el Estado
Los valores e ideales sobre los que se asienta
Las principales funciones del Estado
El papel del Estado frente a los derechos fundamentales
El rol del Estado en la regulación e intervención de la economía
Estado Liberal
El Estado Liberal predominó a principios del siglo XIX
A principios del siglo XIX, se gestaron los Estados Nacionales.
El Estado liberal se basó en la instrucción de un orden jurídico y político que sometiera las acciones de las autoridades públicas y de los ciudadanos para la constitución y
El Estado Liberal tenía como funciones principales son defender al país de agresiones externas, mantener el orden político y garantizar la seguridad dentro su territorio.
El Estado Liberal reconoció fundamentalmente los derechos civiles y políticos de los ciudadanos.
El Estado Liberal tenía como rol
Estado de Bienestar
El Estado de Bienestar predominó en el comienzo de la década de 1930
En la década de 1930, hubo una gran crisis económica que afectó a todos los países occidentales. Como consecuencia de este problema, los sectores sociales tuvieron varios
En los valores fundamentales que el Estado de Bienestar se asentó fueron la igualdad en las oportunidades, la reducción de las desigualdades, la democratización de distintos ámbitos de la vida y extensión de la seguridad social
El Estado de Bienestar debía ocuparse de distribuir las inversiones en beneficio de la sociedad, garantizando empleos y promover el consumo de todas sus capas.
El Estado de Bienestar no solo reconoció los derechos civiles y políticos sino que también el cumplimiento de los derechos económicos y sociales.
El Estado de Bienestar, como rol económico debía regular las intervenciones para que la sociedad se beneficie, y también debía otorgar empleos a quienes lo necesitaran
Estado Neoliberal
El Estado neoliberal se originó a finales de la década de 1970
En la década de 1970, habían nuevas crisis económicas que generaron inflación y estancamiento en la economía mundial.
El Estado Neoliberal se basa en la creencia de que el Estado debía permitir establecer condiciones del desarrollo de competencia en diferentes ámbitos de la vida social.
Las principales funciones del Estado Neoliberal son asegurar el imperio de la ley, proteger el derecho de propiedad individual y fortalecer el juego de competencia de intereses privados que garantizan el libre comercio y libre mercado.
El estado neoliberal defiende el derecho de propiedad individual e interviene en los ámbitos privados para poder eliminar pobreza y aumentar la producción.
El neoliberalismo admite la necesidad de una intervención activa del Estado en la creación de límites jurídicos que permite establecer condiciones óptimas para el desarrollo de la competencia de la vida social.

La politica publica que elegimos es la Asignación Universal por Hijo, por sus siglas A.U.H. Esta política publica se aplica en el ámbito nacional. Ademas, apunta específicamente a que los niños tengan acceso a la salud y educación. Sin embargo, no todos los niños pueden recibir esta asignación. La A.U.H esta dedicada a niños menores de 18 años, en caso de que puede llevar a tener alguna dificultad o discapacidad es para cualquier edad. Esta asignación se aplica a los hijos de
– Personas desocupadas.
– Trabajadores no registrados
– Trabajadores del servicio doméstico.
– Monotributistas sociales.
El objetivo de la Asignacion Universal por Hijo es ayudar a los padres que no possen de un trabajo lo suficientemente economico que les permita pagar servicios de salud y educación, para poder darles a sus hijos una vida digna. Esta reforma paso a ser parte de las miles de leyes de nuestra constitución, en la ley 24.71,y utiliza dinero del gobierno para financiarla, a traves del recaudamiiento de impuestos.

El concepto de nación hace referencia a un conjunto amplio de individuos y grupos que se sienten parte de una misma comunidad. y argentina es una nación porque poseemos territorio, población y cultura, que son características de una nación.
Los elementos que conforman la Identidad Nacional son: la historia, el territorio, símbolos patrios, música y danza, idioma, religión, símbolos naturales, arquitectura, gastronomía etc. todos estos puntos forman una identidad nacional
Según un trabajo de Amnistía Internacional, hay muchos casos que derivaron en situaciones de tensión; la expansión agrícola y minera, la venta de tierras y la mayor conciencia indígena, entre los motivos Actualmente, según datos de Amnistía Internacional, hay cerca de 225 conflictos que involucran a las comunidades aborígenes en todo el país. La gran mayoría de ellos son por cuestiones territoriales, y en una veintena de casos derivaron en una intervención violenta de las fuerzas de seguridad que dejó un saldo de muertos, heridos y hasta desaparecidos aborígenes, más allá del caso de Maldonado.

Online Test

Write a paragraph (80-90 words) saying what has happened to the male character. Use a variety of tenses: simple past, past continuous, past perfect and conditional type 3. Then look for an example of:

This short fragment of the movie “once upon a time”, shows when the woman tells the man when they met for the first time. The girl says that when she was going out of her office, she noticed that she had forgotten her phone. She felt that the phone wasn’t so important, and that she could come for it the following day, but it woke up the necessity of going back. When she went back she saw him lying on the floor. She saved him, and the doctor said if she founded ten minutes later, it would have been too late. If she wouldn’t forgotten the phone, she wouldn’t have been on the road at that time

Write a paragraph (summary) of 80- 90 words of the story The gold Cadillac. Answer the questions in a paragraph. Include a variety of tenses: simple past- past perfect- past continuous and present perfect.

The story “the golden Cadillac” is based on the years were African Americans are not well respected. The story tells about a family that was saving money to buy a new house, but the father disrespect this and buys a golden Cadillac. The mother of the family was so annoying, till the point the she refuse to enter to the car, during a long period of time. Finally the mother accepts to enter the car only to go to the house of some relatives. In the middle of the road the police stopped the family and took out the car from them. Here is when the climax starts. Finally the father sold the car and the family went back to normal.

Project on Human Urinary System – Sol Santayana, Mora Lemos and Fran Montoya

This year in the third quarter with Sol Santayana and Mora Lemos, we were asked to make a model and a presentation explaining how we did of the Human Urinary System, and if it was difficult. I hope you like it.

The images of the model are included in the presentation


Reported speach tutorial- by francisco montoya

This is my tutoria